Complex Vertebral Malformation (CVM)
CVM is a genetic defect that causes aborted foetuses and stillborn calves. Genomnz can identify bovine carriers of CVM by testing for a specific mutation in the SLC35A3 gene.
Complex vertebral malformation (CVM) is a recessive disease and most affected animals are either aborted as foetuses during gestation, born prematurely, or stillborn. The defect is characterised by reduced weight and multiple deformities including a misshapen backbone, tendon contractions in the legs and heart malformations.
Research has identified the specific DNA code that causes CVM in Holstein-Friesian cattle. CVM carriers have a mutation or SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) in the DNA sequence changing a guanine (G) nucleotide to a thymine (T) nucleotide at position 559 of the SLC35A3 gene.
The test identifies three classes of animal:
Where the SLC35A3 genotype is GG the animal does not have the disease.
Where the genotype is GT the animal has one copy of the mutated gene and one copy of the normal gene so although it may not show signs of the disease it will pass the mutation on to about half its offspring.
Where the genotype is TT the animal will be affected by CVM and will not survive.
The CVM test technology is licensed from The Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences.